Африк тивийн орнууд

Amarbayasgalant monastery
Amarbayasgalant monastery was built during 1727-1736, dedicated to Undur Gegeen Zanabazar, the first Bogd of Mongolia. Located at foot of the Burenkhan Mountain, Baruunburen soum, Selenge province. Amarbayasgalant name is Mongolian name and in that time the Manchu emperor Enkh-Amgalan ordered to built monastery for first Bogd Zanabazar to give respect, his skills, wisdom, intellect and accomplishments. So some monks searched suitable place for monastery while that 2 children was playing on the ground (present location) by stone and their names were Amar and Bayasgalan. One hundred thousands langs (3730 kg) of silver from the state fund were used to establish magnificently styled place for Buddha teaching and practice in honor of Zanabazar. 1937-1938 a fearsome repression covered Amarbayasgalant monastery and all the highly trained monks were executed. Also huge numbers of rare religious relics, books, sutras, Buddha sculptures that had been collected for 200 years, were completely destroyed.

The beauty, decorations and construction of the monastery have made it one of the most magnificent architectural monuments not only in Mongolia, in the whole Asia. After established the monastery had more than 10 religious colleges, six thousand monks and more than 50 temples such as Buddha’s temple, Ayush temple, Makhakala temple, Maidar temple and Undur Gegeen Zanabazar’s tomb. But nowadays only 28 buildings remained. Amarbayasgalan, one of the well known and largest monastery in Mongolia. The monastery has symmetrical construction. The main temple’s construction expresses the planning features of the Mongolian national architecture and the engineering solution are very original. One of the interesting solution is routing of roof water through the inside of four columns, under the floor, through the stone grooves and away from the Main temple.

1990 was the time to restore the monastery. The Communism has fallen down and people were eager to receive their religious tradition. The monastery was re-established and today about 40 resident novices and ordained monks are following precisely the rule of Vinaya. The Amarbayasgalant monastery was taken to state protection in 1943 and about 1980 foreign and Mongolian crafts re-established. Now the monastery contains Yanpai door (closed door), Maharaja temple, Historical temple (keep Manchu emperor’s order), Mongolian hearth Yellow Palace and main temple that have 300 years history. Last years, the “Gongoriin bumba takhikh” activity is organized every year. “Gongoriin bumba” means “Urn of rich”.


Gandan monastery:
Its official name is Gandantegchinleng monastery and if translate into English we can say simply “Perfect happiness”. Built in 1839, it is the center of Mongolian Buddhism and the only working monastery during the entire communist period. The monastery comprises a complex of buildings on the hillside northwest of the city. In the past it was one of the main Buddhist centers in Asia having two dozens of chapels and famous for its library collection of religious documents and the typography. The first temple of monastery was built at the initiative of the Mongolian living Buddha, the fifth incarnation Bogd. All temples were constructed architectural design Mongolian, Mongolian-Chinese, Chinese –Tibetian.

The monastery was severely damaged during the repression of 30s and only few building remained among them, a chapel for 20 meters high statue of Megzhid Janraisig god erected in 1911 as a symbol commemorating the Mongolia's independence. During the WW II the statue was taken to Russia and disappeared. In 1990 the statue was rebuilt with nation- wide donations. Megjidjanraisig god’s body was built by 19 tons of copper and gilded by 75926 golden sheets. Now the immense statue of Janraisag (26m high) stands in the 30m high temple and this temple is recognized from a distance. In 1910, this temple was the tallest building in the city and there is an interesting story about this temple. When temple was establishing believers were sitting on the ground dividing 2 columns from temple to Tuul River (south of city) and they carried water for constructing temple by buckets hand to hand.

Also there is an exceptional tree which people believe it accomplish their wishes inside of Gandan monastery fortress wall. During the repression era Gandan monastery was devastated by fire several times but this tree wasn’t fired. Then some monks tried to cut it but exceptional liquid flown down. Since that time people have been deified this tree. As a teaching monastery, Gandan houses the Mongolian Buddhist University. This is one of the Ulaanbaatar most impressive sights.


Khamriin khiid monastery
Khamar Monastery was established in the 1820's by famous 19th century Mongolian educator and literary figure Danzanravjaa. The Monastery was an important centre of the Buddhist "red sect", and seat of the Gobiin Dogshin Noyon Khutagt ("Terrible Noble Saint of the Gobi"). An outspoken critic of the society in which he lived, Danzanravjaa fought against the rigid class and gender distinctions of his day. He devoted great efforts to the cause of public education, which he promoted at Khamar Monastery through the establishment of an inclusive public school, theatre, museum and library.

The "Namtar duulakh datsan" (story-singing college), established at Khamar Monastery in the 1830s, is recognized as being Mongolia's first professional theatre. The nearby "Khuukhdiin datsan" (children's college) offered basic and vocation, artistic training for local children, who often went on to become singers and dancers, painters, sculptors, and other artists at the Monastery or in its theatre company, "Khamar Monastery was a perfectly harmonious location, having a river with many fine trees along its south part and rocky mountains with dozens of caves along its north; and the place was filled with the noise of hundreds of people playing the famous Saran Khokhoo drama”.

To the north of the monastery were a series of caves where monks would practice yogic exercises and meditate in isolation for 108 days at a time, hardening their bodies whilst expanding their physical and spiritual powers. Fossilized dinosaur bones, petrified wood, and other rare paleontological remains are widespread in the area surrounding the monastery. Paleontologists working in the region have dug up most notably a skeleton of the herbivorous dinosaur iguanodon, which lived in the Cretaceous period between 80 and 200 million years ago, At its peak Khamar Monastery consisted of four main sections - East Khuree, west Khuree, Tsokhon and Dunkher - comprising four colleges (datsan) and the children's school, more than eighty temples, and a resident population of over five hundred lamas. The monastery was completely destroyed by the military in 1938 during Mongolia's religious purge. Currently two small ceremonial temples and several religious monuments have been reconstructed, with more than ten lamas now in residence at the monastery.


Ongi Monastery
Formerly one of the largest monasteries in Mongolia, Ongi monastery was founded in 0660 and consisted of two temple complexes on the North and South banks of the Ongiin Gol River. The older southern complex consisted of various administrative buildings as well as 11 temples. The northern complex built in the 18th century, consisted of 17 temples-among them one of the largest temples in all Mongolia. The Ongi monastery grounds also 4 Buddhist universities and could accommodate over one thousand monks at a time. During the 1930’s communism spread throughout Mongolia.

As part of their ideological campaign and rise to power, communists arrested most monks around Mongolia. In 1939 Ongi monastery was completely destroyed over 200 monks were killed and many surviving monks were imprisoned pr forced to join the communist controlled army. Other monks escaped certain death by becoming farmers and common workers. The water from the river was re-routed to support local mine, which were run by the Communist government. When the river dried out, Local communities were forced to leave surrounding areas of monastery. With the departure of both monks and locals, ongi monastery seemed destined to disappear. However, democratization of Mongolia in 1990, three monks returned to Ongi monastery where they had begun their Buddhist education as young children some 60 years prior. These monks started laying new foundation upon the old ruins, with a vision to restore Ongi monastery and revitalize Buddhism in Mongolia. Around the Ongi monastery there are some tourist camps.

Tovkhon Monastery
The excellent location of Tovkhon temple is short distance of 70 kms from KharKhorin. If you visit to Khar Khorin, it is recommended to explore the Tovkhon temple in impressive beautiful mountainous area. Zanabazar, who was the first leader of Buddhism, located the place. It was built in 1653; believers who gathered in Erdenezuu monastery decided to built a special Monastery for Zanabazar. Following this decision the Monastery Tuvkhun was built at Shireet Ulaan, the most beautiful scenery in Khangai Mountains and he called it Land of Happy Solitude. The monastery located in the dense forested and picturesque mountain Shivee at an elevation of 200 m above sea level. There are several temples, a small cave, where he could do meditation, another cave called Mother Belly.

If someone entered and get out from this cave, there is hope of having their faults washed away in the next rebirth. The first temple of Tuvkhun monastery was built in 1654. Researchers have determined that this first temple was the meditation studio of Undur Gegeen Zanabazar. The monastery was restored in 1760 and 1786. One undamaged temple and foundations of buildings, wooden floors, ruins of some temples were protected by the Ovorkhangai province in 1971 and by the State in 1994. A restoration design for the undamaged temple was made in 1992. Hiking to rocky hills and looking at the stunning beauty of wild nature in surrounding areas are the excellent fun, which makes you refreshed and enthusiastic.

Erdenezuu monastery
The first Buddhist monastery in Mongolia, Eedenezuu was established on the ruin of ancient Kharkhorin city in 1586 by Avtai Sain khan, probably the most ancient surviving Buddhist monastery in Mongolia. The monastery located Kharkhorin soum, Uvurkhangai province. It is surrounded by fortress wall sized 420m each side, with 108 stupas. In 1792, it housed 62 temples, Mongolian lords tried to have own named temple inside of wall of monastery because it means they have high reputation. Also in 1658, the biggest ger consists of 35 walls, 1700 long pole and could contain 200 people, was built up at the middle space of monastery wall.

During the communist era this monastery nearly destroyed, nowadays it contains 3 main temples, other some smaller temples, 2 tombs which were dedicated to Avtai sain Khan and his son Tusheed khan Gombodorj and the biggest stupa in Mongolia named “Golden stupa”. The temples became museums in 1947 because Erdene Zuu was allowed to exist as a museum only; the only functioning monastery in Mongolia was Gandantegchinlen Khiid Monastery in the capital, Ulaanbaatar. However, after the fall of Communism in Mongolia in 1990, the monastery was turned over to the lamas and Erdene Zuu again became a place of worship.

Three main temples are named west zuu, middle zuu and east zuu. Zuu means respectful name of Buddha. So we can see Buddha’s different images such as past time Buddha, future time Buddha, present time Buddha, his child image, adult image, old aged image and his sapient pupils in these temples. These temples have double wall, for encapsulate warm and cool and kind of praying named “Goroo”. Today this monastery could become active monastery again and open for local believers and visitors. This is one of the places where we can learn more about religious and cultural traditions of Mongolia.

Baldan bereiven monastery
The monastery was established by Mongolian monk Tseveendorj. Monastery is considered as one of the three largest monasteries in Mongolia was built in 1777 It was one of the Mongolian biggest monasteries, had 5000-6000 monks. At that time the monastery had 4 religious colleges and more than 20 temples which for religious meeting every day. The main temple (tsogchin dugan) 30m*30m each side, was established between 1700- 1776 and one of the biggest construction in Mongolia.

Huge number of lamas (half of monks) held with pest in 1900s and remained monks were imprisoned and killed during the religious repression in 1930s. All temples and buildings of monastery were fired and most of Buddha sculptures were melted for bullets at that time. There are many kinds of Buddha were painted and sculpted around the monastery. Also there is particular formation rock named “Mother womb”. The people who arrived there, do some actions such as was born, washed and cradled like new baby and finally sit on the king’s enthrone. This monastery was locked for 60 years but some monks arrived back to the monastery built a small wooden temple, joined together local people and restored activities in 1990.

Gunjiin sum /Princes temple/
Gunjiin Sum monastery is located 30 km north of the main area where most of the ger camps are situated in Terelj. Surrounded by magnificent forests, not far from the lovely river, the Baruun Bayan Gol, the temple was built in 1740 by Efu Dondovdorj to commemorate the death of his Manchurian wife Amarlangui. Once part of a huge monastery containing about 70 sq metres of blue walls, five other temples and a tower, Gunjiin Sum is one of the very few if not the only – Manchurian influenced temple in Mongolia to survive over the centuries.

Unlike most other monasteries in Mongolia, Gunjiin Sum was not destroyed during the Stalinist purges, but just fell into ruin from neglect, vandalism and theft. Only the main temple and some of the walls of the monastery remain. Although you wouldn’t know it, extensive restoration has been carried out – and is still being carried out – which gives you some idea of how damaged it must have been.

Manzushir monastery
Manzushir monastery was a monastery established in 1733 CE, south of the Bogd Khan Uul Mountain range, 4km north of the Tuv Aimag capital of Zuunmod. Over time the monastery grew into a complex that housed more than 20 temples with over 300 resident monks. During the communist purges of the 1920's and 30's, the monastery was completely destroyed and all the monks either killed or exiled. The remains of the temple have been turned into a museum. A new temple has been built in Zuunmod also dedicated to Manzushir.

In the summer of 2009 Mongolian Rover Scouts and UK Scout Network members arranged a service project to repaint the new temple. A donation was also made to help fund rebuilding the wooden fence with a stone wall.
 
 
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